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Framework For Cooperative Agreements

In May 2010, five upstream states signed an agreement to seek more water from the Nile, a step that was firmly rejected by Egypt and Sudan. [5] The Framework Cooperation Agreement (CFA) negotiated for years under the NBI was to be signed for a period of one year. [19] Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania signed the agreement; Ethiopia ratified it in 2013. [20] The DRC should also be signed, while Egypt and Sudan are not supposed to. An Egyptian government spokesman said in May 2010: «Egypt will not accede to an agreement or sign any agreement on its share.» [5] The NBI`s institutional framework consists of three important institutions:[8] The Nile Basin Initiative is a partnership between the Nile rim countries that «seeks to develop the river cooperatively in a cooperative manner.» , to share essential socio-economic benefits and promote peace and security in the region.» [1] The NBI began with a dialogue between the neighbouring countries, which led to a common goal of «achieving sustainable socio-economic development through equitable use and exploitation of the common water resources of the Nile Basin.» [1] [2] It was officially launched in February 1999[2] by water ministers from nine countries sharing the river: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Eritrea as observers. From the beginning, the World Bank and other external partners have supported the Nile Basin initiative. The World Bank has a mandate to support the work of the NBI as a development partner and administrator of the Nile Basin Trust Multi-Donor Fund. [3] One of the partners is the Nile Basin Discourse, which describes itself as «a network of civil society organizations that are trying to gain a positive influence on the development of projects and programs under the Nile Basin initiative.» [4] The signing of the agreement was already scheduled at a ministerial meeting in 2007, but was delayed at Egypt`s request. [21] The upstream countries then decided at another ministerial meeting in Kinshasa in May 2009 to sign the agreement without all countries signing at the same time. However, the signing was delayed and, at the next ministerial meeting held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, in April 2010, it was again asked to postpone the signature. The water safety article (Article 14 ter) raised particular objections from Egypt and Sudan. The article states that Member States will cooperate to «ensure that the water security of another country in the Nile basin is not significantly affected.» Egypt and Sudan want the article «Water security and the current uses and rights of other countries in the Nile basin» without qualification to be «significant».

[21] Egypt`s former Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, Mahmoud Abu-Zeid, sees the framework agreement as a positive start: «All have approved more than 95 per cent of the articles.» [22] An article on the protection and conservation of the basin and its ecosystem – such as the Sudd in Sudan – and an article requiring «prior consent» before the construction of new dams had also been unanimous in previous negotiations. [21] Representatives of the upstream countries said they were «tired of first obtaining Egypt`s permission before using Nile-river water for any development project such as irrigation,» as required by a first-time contract between Egypt and Great Britain in 1929. [23] The agreement does not contain fixed amounts of water for each riparian country.

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